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Zigbee is widely adopted as a resource-efficient wireless protocol in the IoT network. IoT devices from manufacturers have recently been affected due to major vulnerabilities in Zigbee protocol implementations. Security testing of Zigbee protocol implementations is becoming increasingly important. However, applying existing vulnerability detection techniques such as fuzzing to the Zigbee protocol is not a simple task. Dealing with low-level hardware events still remains a big challenge. For the Zigbee protocol, which communicates over a radio channel, many existing protocol fuzzing tools lack a sufficient execution environment. To narrow the gap, we designed Z-Fuzzer, a device-agnostic fuzzing tool for detecting security flaws in Zigbee protocol implementations. To simulate Zigbee protocol execution, Z-Fuzzer leverages a commercial embedded device simulator with pre-defined peripherals and hardware interrupt setups to interact with the fuzzing engine. Z-Fuzzer generates more highquality test cases with code-coverage heuristics. We compare Z-Fuzzer with advanced protocol fuzzing tools, BooFuzz and Peach fuzzer, on top of Z-Fuzzer’s simulation platform. Our findings suggest that Z-Fuzzer can achieve greater code coverage in Z-Stack, a widely used Zigbee protocol implementation. Compared to BooFuzz and Peach, Z-Fuzzer found more vulnerabilities with fewer test cases. Three of them have been assigned CVE IDs with high CVSS scores (7.5~8.2).

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.