ORCID Identifier(s)


Document Type

Honors Thesis


Although Heart Failure (HF) can occur in both women and men, some studies have shown that both genders do not present the same outcomes; however, there is an underrepresentation of the effect of gender on the relationship of HF and changes in activities of daily living. This study compared the effects of gender on dyspnea and other variables to determine differences between symptoms, disability, and other relationships. A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 186 patients who were told to perform several tests to evaluate muscle weakness, functional status, depression, and disability. Instruments such as the 6-minute walk test were used to provide accurate scores. Results showed higher levels of dyspnea correlated with more depression in female patients and higher levels of dyspnea correlated with lower muscle strength in male patients. These differences indicate that interventions targeting the findings may help improve patient outcomes

Publication Date




Faculty Mentor of Honors Project

Yaewon Seo



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