Seda Ermis

Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering


Electrical Engineering

First Advisor

Saibun Tjuatja


A geophysical microwave backscattering model for space borne and ground-based remote sensing of precipitation is developed and used to analyze backscattering measurements from rain and snow type precipitation. Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) equations for a multilayered inhomogeneous medium are applied to the precipitation region for calculation of backscattered intensity. Numerical solution of the VRT equation for multiple layers is provided by the matrix doubling method to take into account close range interactions between particles. In previous studies, the VRT model was used to calculate backscattering from a rain column on a sea surface [41]. In the model, Mie scattering theory for closely spaced scatterers was used to determine the phase matrix for each sublayer characterized by a set of parameters. The scatterers i.e. rain drops within the sublayers were modelled as spheres with complex permittivities. The rain layer was bounded by rough boundaries; the interface between the cloud and the rain column as well as the interface between the sea surface and the rain were all analyzed by using the integral equation model (IEM). Therefore, the phase matrix for the entire rain column was generated by the combination of surface and volume scattering [41]. Besides Mie scattering, in this study, we use T-matrix approach to examine the effect of the shape to the backscattered intensities since larger raindrops are most likely oblique in shape. Analyses show that the effect of obliquity of raindrops to the backscattered wave is related with size of the scatterers and operated frequency. For the ground-based measurement system, the VRT model is applied to simulate the precipitation column on horizontal direction. Therefore, the backscattered reflectivities for each unit range of volume are calculated from the backscattering radar cross sections by considering radar range and effective illuminated area of the radar beam. The volume scattering phase matrices for each range interval are calculated by Mie scattering theory. VRT equations are solved by matrix doubling method to compute phase matrix for entire radar beam. Model results are validated with measured data by X-band dual polarization Phase Tilt Weather Radar (PTWR) for snow, rain, wet hail type precipitation. The geophysical parameters given the best fit with measured reflectivities are used in previous models i.e. Rayleigh Approximation and Mie scattering and compared with the VRT model. Results show that reflectivities calculated by VRT models are differed up to 10 dB from the Rayleigh approximation model and up to 5 dB from the Mie Scattering theory due to both multiple scattering and attenuation losses for the rain rates as high as 80 mm/h.


Electrical and Computer Engineering | Engineering


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington