Document Type


Source Publication Title

Journal of GLBT Family Studies



In Canada, the evolution of gay rights and surrogacy legislation present a unique sociopolitical context in which gay men consider parenthood. This study explored the motivations of gay men and gestational surrogates to pursue surrogacy in Canada. Interviews were conducted with (a) gestational surrogates who had been implanted with one or more embryos from a donated egg and gay fathers’ sperm and (b) gay men who completed gestational surrogacy to have a biological child. Data were analyzed through interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) strategies. Findings are framed within ecological systems theory (EST) to demonstrate how both proximal and distal contexts have either facilitated or hindered the decision to pursue surrogacy for gay men. A new theoretical interpretation of surrogacy shows that reproductive decision-making is situated across a complex continuum, from acts of resistance that challenge heteronormative parenthood and kinship practices to re-enactments of traditional family systems and hegemonic gender norms. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of GLBT Family Studies on 17 Jan 2019, available online:


Social and Behavioral Sciences | Social Work

Publication Date




Available for download on Wednesday, January 01, 3000

Included in

Social Work Commons