Krishan Patel

Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Landscape Architecture


Landscape Architecture

First Advisor

David Hopman


The focus of this thesis was to understand people’s perceptions of thermal comfort. Understanding design attributes that affect thermal comfort in outdoor spaces is necessary, as it will have a major influence on the design of urban outdoor spaces (Nikolopoulou and Steemers, 2003). The research will have great implications on the field of landscape architecture, architecture, urban design, and planning, Indoor malls are no longer being built. The trend is moving towards lifestyle centers. Lifestyle centers offer an experience that can’t be replicated by indoor malls. Lifestyle centers are open to the sky and as a result, they are exposed to climatic factors, such as air temperature, humidity, wind, and solar radiation. The Shops at La Cantera located in the city of San Antonio, Texas, was the case study chosen for the research. San Antonio is in a humid subtropical climate zone. The Shops at La Cantera is an open-air outdoor mall. The designers incorporated many elements in the mall to providing spaces that were thermally comfortable for its visitors. Some of these design factors were based on adaptive human behaviors that gave the perception of thermal comfort. Psychological adaptations influence thermal comfort has become an important aspect of landscape architecture. This research addresses how thermal comfort, is perceived. The incorporation of landscape elements that help hold people in a space for a longer period determines the success of outdoor urban open spaces. The research study has found that certain attributes that were implemented at The Shops at La Cantera were effective. The findings suggest that perceived control, shading, water features, and plantings were important attributes that affected the perception of a user’s thermal comfort.


Perceptions, Thermal comfort, Outdoor thermal comfort, Perceived control, Colorscape, Waterscape, Soundscape, San Antonio, Landscape aesthetic, Hot and humid climate, Humid subtropical climate


Architecture | Landscape Architecture


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington