Joey B. Ball

Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Landscape Architecture


Landscape Architecture

First Advisor

Taner R. Ozdil


is of vital importance to accommodate the need for security in site plans and designs on all military installations. Terrorism prevention, referred to as force protection by the United States Department of Defense, is accomplished through a combination of landscape and facility design standards. To minimize the likelihood of mass casualties from terrorist attacks against military personnel in the facilities in which they work and live, the Department of Defense has established design standards that shape the site design process. (Unified Facilities Criteria) 4-010-01)This research examines each stage of the implementation process of anti-terrorism site design guidelines for possible weaknesses and inconsistencies, then makes recommendations for improvements to the process. The research uses qualitative methods to evaluate the standard anti-terrorism site design guidelines and how they are implemented on selected U.S. military installations. The study is focused on Fort Hood, Fort Sam Houston, Fort Bliss, and Fort Polk.Initially, primary military documents that contain anti-terrorism/force protection guidelines were studied for content, and compared to non-military literature on crime prevention through site design. Analysis of the literature resulted in a list of site design concepts for planning secure military installations. This list of design concepts were compared to the installation design guides of the selected military installations. Then interviews were conducted with three groups of key informants: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Military Planning Staff, U.S. Army Installation Anti-terrorism Specialists, and U.S. Army Installation Planning Staff. Using the data triangulation method, the three groups' responses were compared, to search for themes or inconsistencies. (Taylor 1998) The comments from the interviews revealed how well site-related anti-terrorism/force protection (AT/FP) standards are carried from one document to the next and ultimately to built military projects. The results indicate that there are some consistencies and inconsistencies in the perceptions of military personnel on the implementation of anti-terrorism site design standards.Landscape Architects, engineers, and planners working for the U.S. Department of Defense are required to follow anti-terrorism/force protection guidelines, which affect the overall development of United States military installations. This study is valuable in ensuring that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is designing secure environments in which American soldiers work and live. Additionally, this research contributes to the profession of landscape architecture by educating practitioners on the role that site design plays in preventing terrorism.


Architecture | Landscape Architecture


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington