Abdul Wahab

Document Type

Honors Thesis


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been viewed as a promising cancer treatment, but it has been limited due to poor tissue penetration by the light that can potentially be solved by photosensitizers activated by microwaves that can penetrate further to reach deeper tissue. Copper-cysteamine (Cu-Cy) is a novel photosensitizer that can be excited using microwave (MW), ultra-violet (UV) light, and X-rays to generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the destruction of cancer cells. This review is meant to present the process of photodynamic therapy and a method for synthesizing Cu-Cy nanoparticles with current information concerning microwave-induced photodynamic therapy (MIPDT), including a discussion of in vitro and in vivo studies that have shown significant tumor destruction using Cu-Cy nanoparticles with microwave activation. The main mechanism for ROS generation is the release of copper ions and the heating effects upon MW stimulation of Cu-Cy nanoparticles that lead to cell destruction. Treatment with Cu-Cy nanoparticles using microwave-induced photodynamic therapy offers a new method for targeted cancer treatment.

Publication Date






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