Sarah Nelson

Document Type

Honors Thesis


Insulin deficiency and insulin resistance are common etiologic traits of chronic hyperglycemia associated with the diagnosis of type II diabetes which results in an increased risk for the subsequent development of age-related compositional bodily changes. Of these progressive bodily changes, sarcopenia, an age-associated disease marked by a gradual reduction in skeletal muscle mass and functionality, has been noted to be positively correlated with high degrees of insulin resistance observed in type II diabetic older adults (≥65 yrs.). In addition to variables such as general inactivity and arthritic pain, the downregulation of GLUT-4 receptors on skeletal myocytes caused by chronic hyperglycemia can result in defects to insulin signaling and later impairments to protein and muscle synthesis. Experimental aims were to investigate the impact that graded glucose concentration titrations (100 mg/dL, 275 mg/dL, 450 mg/dL, and 625 mg/dL) in murine cell media have on the metabolism, development, and acclimation of C2C12 skeletal muscles cells. The results of this study established an associative relationship between hyperglycemic (625 mg/dL) and hypoglycemic (100 mg/dL) states and impaired myotube formation. The implications of this data could be used to quantify and establish a causal relationship between longstanding, uncontrolled type II diabetes and sarcopenic muscle wasting.

Publication Date






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