Determination of volume and surface scattering from saline ice using ice sheets with precisely controlled roughness parameters

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IEEE Transactions on Geoscience And Remote Sensing


Experiments were performed at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) in Hanover, NH, to precisely determine the relative contributions of surface and volume scattering from saline ice that has well-known surface roughness characteristics. The ice growth phase of the experiment made use of two 6-ft diameter tanks and a 6-ft diameter mold with known roughness sattistical parameters of rms height=0.25 cm and Gaussian correlation (correlation length=2.0 cm). One tank was used for growing a moderately thick saline ice sheet with very smooth surface, and the other was used for growing a thin layer of freshwater ice over the surface mold. The latter resulted in a layer with one statistically known rough boundary and one smooth boundary. Wide-bandwidth, multiple incidence angle backscattering measurements were performed, first on the bare saline ice sheet and then on the same sheet after the thin freshwater ice sheet was placed on top of it. Results indicate that the surface scattering dominates over saline ice volume scattering at all frequencies for low incidence angels for both the very smooth and Gaussian rough surfaces. The significance of volume scattering depends strongly on angle of incidence, frequency, volume scattering albedo, surface roughness, and surface correlation function.


Electrical and Computer Engineering | Engineering

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