ORCID Identifier(s)


Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Leadership and Policy Studies


Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

First Advisor

Catherine Robert


Nearly 3.5 million American students (K-12) experience some form of ostracization from educational settings yearly in the form of In-School-Suspension (ISS), Out-of-School suspension (OSS), or expulsion. Impact research reveals that exclusionary practices correlate with negative outcomes for students including academic achievement (e.g., lower test scores, higher dropout rates), socio-emotional struggles, and increased problem behaviors and interactions with the criminal justice system Studies have also demonstrated that school systems tend to promote negative attitudes towards Black children beginning in elementary grades. Many studies indicate that the inevitability of academic exclusion stems from teacher bias against Black students and lack of training to support all students. Black females experience similar negative outcomes as Black males, yet the literature lacks information as to when Black females experience the most risk for ISS or OSS. This study addresses an important gap in discipline literature as it focuses on the extent to which femaleness and ethnicity converge to influence time to first elementary exclusion experience. Findings indicate Black females are overrepresented in ISS or OSS discipline infractions in each of the first eight years of the study. Analysis revealed Black females’ risk of receiving a first ISS or OSS is significantly greater than White females at each grade level.


Discipline, Discipline inequity, Black female elementary discipline


Education | Educational Leadership


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington