Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Civil Engineering


Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Sahadat Md Hossain


Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a global issue from its social, environmental, and economic aspects. Poor SWM is one of the significant causes of resource degradation, environmental pollution, and public health problems. In this study, households’ solid waste generation and characterization were determined for selected cities in Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative study methods were applied to collect primary and secondary data to assess the household’s MSW generation rate and characterize the waste type's physical composition. The households’ daily MSW generation rates in Bole and Kirkos sub-cities, Addis Ababa, were found to be 0.54 and 0.26 Kg/capita/day, respectively, and the average became 0.40 Kg/capita/day. The annual MSW generation from residential households was 67,000, 51,060, 56,095, 54,000, and 789,509 tons/day for Adama, Bahir Dar, Hawassa, Jimma, and Addis Ababa, respectively. The per capita daily MSW generation rate of residential households in the five cities was between 0.36 – 0.59 with an average of 0.46 Kg/day. The national daily MSW generation for urban residential homes was estimated as 0.37 Kg/capita/day. The primary composition of the MSW in Bole and Kirkos sub-cities of Addis Ababa was 65.9% of organic followed by 9.5% of plastics, 7.7% textiles, and 6.2% paper waste. Besides, 0.7% of the fraction was found to have hazardous waste materials, including old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, and batteries. It was found that there is a significant positive correlation between household MSW generation and their monthly income (r = 0.525, p <0.01) and expense (r = 0.409, p <0.01). The binary logistic regression analysis was conducted for selected explanatory variables, implied sorting at the source, households MSW disposal system and respondents’ profession were determinant factors of household MSW generation (p<0.05). The global municipal solid waste generation is expected to project to 3.40 billion tons by 2050 and is estimated to be tripled in developing countries. Ethiopia's municipal solid waste generation rate was 6 million tons/year in 2015 and is predicted to rise to 10 million tons/year by 2030 and 18 million tons/year by 2050. In this regard, it is important to clearly understand the trend of household solid waste generation rate in large cities of Ethiopia to address major challenges of the MSW management system and its impact on the urban environment and to set an effective management system. Therefore, this chapter aims to analyze the trend of household solid waste generation and respective service provision, significant challenges in SWM service provision, and the impact of MSW mismanagement in the urban environment. Quantitative and qualitative methods were applied to collect all relevant data from the five cities, and trend analysis was done to determine the generation rate and service provision between 2016 and 2021. Households’ MSW generation was also extrapolated between 2022 and 2050. Descriptive statistics were done using SPSS version 25 to present findings with graphs. The annual household’s solid waste generation increased from 52.60 – 67.90 x 103 tons with an average annual incremental rate of 5% in Adama city. Similarly, from 32.90 – 51.06 x 103 tons with an average yearly incremental rate of 5% in Bahir Dar city, from 42.20 – 56.10 x 103 toons with an average annual incremental rate of 6% in Hawassa city, from 37.90 – 54.00 x 103 ton with an average incremental yearly rate of 7% in Jimma town and from 667.00 – 789.51 x 103 ton with an average annual cumulative rate of 3% in Addis Ababa city. The five cities' average solid waste generation rate increased by 5% annually. Based on the projected data, the household's solid waste generation rate will be quadrupled by 2050. The city's collection capacity increased from 45 – 65%, 48 – 65%, 52 – 68%, 42 – 65% and 71 – 84% between 2016 and 2022 in Adama, Bahir Dar, Hawassa, Jima and Addis Ababa cities, respectively. None of the cities have sanitary landfill sites constructed according to the national standard for final solid waste disposal. Besides their quality, the existing disposal sites served between 20 – 60 years and are currently forced to perform beyond their capacity. Poor public awareness, weak solid waste management service mainly due to financial constraints; poor infrastructure, equipment, and material shortage; poor governance and policy gaps were found critical challenges of the management system. All the flaws of the management system had an impact on the environment – water, land, and air as well as on public health. The solid waste management roadmap is therefore developed to support policy-and decision-makers for future implementation of sustainable MSWM at the national level.


Solid waste generation rate, Solid waste characterization, Trend analysis, Solid waste collection service, Sanitary landfill, Challenges of municipal solid waste management, Environmental impact


Civil and Environmental Engineering | Civil Engineering | Engineering


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington