ORCID Identifier(s)


Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Biomedical Engineering



First Advisor

Kytai T Nguyen


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a disease that one or several peripheral arteries are narrowed or blocked. PAD is an emerging disease that cost annually 10-20 billions of US dollars for health care in America. PAD patients suffer high risk of limb loss, amputations and mortalities. At 5 years, the amputation rate for PAD is 40%-70% while the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%. For PAD patients undergoing acute and critical limb ischemia, surgery bypass and endovascular balloon/stenting are applied as standard treatments. However, surgical bypass is subject to patients’ readiness of autologous veins and the depth of arteries while endovascular intervention has limits due to complexes of specific arteries. More importantly, about 20-30% of PAD patients with critical limb ischemia cannot undergo surgery or endovascular revascularization. In this research, we have sought for an alternative treatment by utilizing nanoparticles that carry hybrid NO donor/antioxidant SA-2 and SA-10 molecules. The NPs were treated to animals under plain form and conjugation form with microbubbles. Results showed that our hybrid SA-10 NPs were able to recover animals both physically and physiologically. The research outcomes suggested the potentials of utilizing SA-10 NPs as a new treatment for PAD.


PAD, Peripheral arterial disease, Nanoparticle, Microbubble, Ultrasound, HIFU, Nitric oxide, Antioxidant, Reactive oxygen species, Peripheral vascular disease, PVD, Hybrid molecule


Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering | Engineering


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington