Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Social Work


Social Work

First Advisor

Seek Sung Moon


This study is an exploratory qualitative research investigating current advocacy networks among NGOs trying to alleviate female sex trade human trafficking (FSTHT) in Japan. The principal objective is to identify the structure, context and process of how advocacy networks are emerging. This study grounds its philosophical belief in constructivism; and constructivist grounded theory inquiry was employed as a research strategy. Data collection was conducted through 9 open-ended telephone or face-to-face interviews, 7 demographic questionnaires through e-mail, direct observation at a conference, and other documentation. The constructivist grounded theory analytical approach guided the analysis stage by observing how participants construct meanings and actions in precise situations of advocacy networks. Line-by-line open coding, focus coding, axial coding, and selective coding were conducted as part of the progression towards a theoretical integration. Findings indicated that emergence, progress, and operation of advocacy networks fighting FSTHT in Japan are influenced by several macro and micro factors; and these factors are simultaneously influencing the complexity of the FSTHT phenomenon itself. Nine factors emerged as a result of initial coding. The complicated explanatory linkage among these factors emerged through the analysis of context and process and theoretical integration in the history of advocacy networks among NGOs in Japan. Research focused on transnational advocacy networks combating FSTHT needs to be investigated differently depending upon which countries are involved. Also, depending upon the position of a country in relation to victims, the advocacy operates differently. Thus, the resulting product in each area will form a substantive theory. The current study's findings robustly suggest the need for accumulation of these substantive theories in different areas and different countries in order to pursue a more formal theory.


Social and Behavioral Sciences | Social Work


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington

Included in

Social Work Commons