Graduation Semester and Year




Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing



First Advisor

Jennifer R Gray


Regardless of practice settings, healthcare workers (HCWs) in Sub-Saharan Africa are either infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. This mixed methods study measured the extent of HIV/AIDS stigma and the relationship between stigma and sociodemographic variables in a sample of 76 HIV positive HCWs. Qualitative aspects (n=20) explored how HIV positive HCWs manage personal health, stigma experiences in the workplace, and the HCWs role in reducing stigma in the workplace. Overall, HIV positive HCWs in this study experienced low stigma levels (Mean= 7.88, SD 12.90). Subscale means ranged from 0.09 (SD 0.28) for workplace stigma to 0.39 (SD 0.62) for verbal abuse. Stigma was negatively and significantly correlated with years of work experience ( χ 6.97, df= 1, p = 0.01), annual salary (χ 4.02, = df= 1, p = 0.05), years living with HIV (χ 5.07, df = 1, p =0.02) and positively and significantly correlated with employment category (χ 9.32, = df= 1, p = 0.00). None of the sociodemographic variables were predictive of stigma in this sample. Two negative themes emerged blame and lack of knowledge. Five positive themes emerged related to stigma experiences: living positively, optimism, empathy, support, and changes over time. Normalizing, leading by example and empowerment were three themes that emerged on ways of reducing stigma. Disclosing HIV status, awareness of an HIV/AIDS workplace policy, and having access to treatment, stigma reduction training, and workplace support groups may have contributed to the low stigma scores. Qualitative findings corroborated quantitative findings and corresponded to the six domains of the stigma instrument (HASI-P). Stigma reduction efforts should incorporate socioecological approaches; expand beyond the individual level and address interpersonal, institutional, community, and public policy levels of influence.


Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


Degree granted by The University of Texas at Arlington

Included in

Nursing Commons